Emerging Technologies 2020

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Emerging Technologies 2020 by Mind Map: Emerging Technologies 2020

1. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

1.1. In the Global South

1.1.1. Design

1.1.1.1. Frugal MOOC

1.1.1.1.1. Ruggedization

1.1.1.1.2. Lightweight

1.1.1.1.3. Mobile enabled solutions

1.1.1.1.4. Human specific design

1.1.1.1.5. Simplification

1.1.1.1.6. New distribution models

1.1.1.1.7. Adaptation

1.1.1.1.8. Use of local resources

1.1.1.1.9. Green technologies

1.1.1.1.10. Affordability

1.1.1.2. Considerations

1.1.1.2.1. Context

1.1.1.2.2. Sustainability

1.1.1.2.3. Cross-cultural design

1.1.1.2.4. Human Rights

1.1.1.2.5. Use of OERs

1.1.1.2.6. Implementation

1.1.1.2.7. Frugal innovations

1.1.2. Partners

1.1.2.1. Government agencies

1.1.2.2. Non-governmental education groups

1.1.2.3. Universities

1.1.2.4. Academic conferences

1.1.2.5. Major MOOC providers

1.1.3. Issues

1.1.3.1. Context Appropriateness of Content

1.1.3.2. Internet access

1.1.3.3. Literacy levels of learners

1.1.3.4. Online Pedagogies

1.1.3.5. Heavy global north bias

1.1.3.6. Access of technologies

1.1.3.7. MOOC credit transferability

1.1.3.8. Bandwidth issues

1.1.4. Platforms

1.1.4.1. K-MOOC

1.1.4.2. jMOOC

1.1.4.3. ThaiMOOC

1.1.4.4. OpenLearning.com

1.1.4.5. University Joint Alliance Platform

1.1.4.6. Swayam

1.1.4.7. MODeL

1.1.4.8. IndonesiaX

1.2. Who is involved in a MOOC

1.2.1. Participants

1.2.1.1. Novice

1.2.1.1.1. Needs Scaffolding

1.2.1.1.2. Generally not a contributor at first

1.2.1.2. Expert (participated in a MOOC Before)

1.2.1.2.1. Creation of resources

1.2.2. Facilitators

1.2.2.1. Researchers

1.2.2.2. Evaluation Team

1.2.2.3. Instructional Designers

1.2.2.4. Production Team

1.2.2.5. Administrators paying for it

1.2.2.6. One or more instructors or content experts

1.2.2.7. Actors in videos

1.2.2.8. Teaching Assistants

1.2.2.9. MOOC experts and trainers

1.2.2.10. Retired faculty and outside experts

1.2.3. Providers

1.2.3.1. edX

1.2.3.2. Coursera

1.2.3.3. Udemy

1.2.3.4. Udacity

1.2.3.5. FutureLearn

1.2.3.6. NovoEd

1.2.3.7. Iversity

1.2.3.8. Goodwill

1.2.3.9. Open2Study

1.2.3.10. SWAYAM

1.2.4. Some of the First Creators

1.2.4.1. George Siemens

1.2.4.2. Dave Cormier

1.2.4.3. Stephens Downes

1.2.4.4. Institutions

1.2.4.4.1. Harvard

1.2.4.4.2. M.I.T.

1.2.4.4.3. Stanford

1.3. Context

1.3.1. A "Place" of Learning

1.3.1.1. Comfortable space to share

1.3.1.2. A place for activities

1.3.1.3. A place for network building

1.3.1.4. Tools

1.3.1.4.1. LMS

1.3.1.4.2. twitter

1.3.1.4.3. blogs

1.3.1.4.4. Elluminate

1.3.1.4.5. Facebook

1.3.1.4.6. gRSShopper

1.3.1.5. A place for social network learning

1.3.1.5.1. Learner to Facilitator

1.3.1.5.2. Facilitator to Learner

1.3.1.5.3. Learner to learner

1.3.1.6. A place to collect resources

1.3.1.6.1. Interactive OERs

1.3.1.6.2. Videos

1.3.1.6.3. Articles

1.3.1.6.4. News letters that are aggregation of other resources

1.3.2. Attributes

1.3.2.1. Dispersed learning

1.3.2.2. Learner centered

1.3.2.3. Learner driven

1.3.2.4. Facilitator not always lead

1.3.2.5. Types

1.3.2.5.1. xMOOC

1.3.2.5.2. cMOOC

1.3.2.5.3. PD-MOOC

1.3.2.5.4. pMOOC

1.3.2.5.5. Flipped MOOC

1.3.2.6. Issues & Quality

1.3.2.6.1. Accreditation

1.3.2.6.2. Plagiarism

1.3.2.6.3. True Measurement of Engagement

1.3.2.6.4. English Language Dominated

1.3.2.6.5. Heavily Western Perspective

1.3.2.6.6. Transfer of MOOC Credit to Traditional Institution

1.3.2.6.7. Equity of Access

1.3.2.6.8. Inappropriate Use of Copyrighted Materials

1.3.2.6.9. Minimal Application of Instructional Design Principals

1.3.2.7. Benefits

1.3.2.7.1. Just in time learning

1.3.2.7.2. Affordable

1.3.2.7.3. Democratization of education

1.3.2.7.4. Access to top professors

1.3.2.7.5. Culturally diverse learning opportunities for students and instructors

1.3.2.7.6. Develops instructor's skills

1.3.3. Participants

1.3.3.1. Types of Participants

1.3.3.1.1. Teachers

1.3.3.1.2. Researchers

1.3.3.1.3. Managers

1.3.3.1.4. Mentors

1.3.3.1.5. Engineers

1.3.3.1.6. Facilitators

1.3.3.1.7. Trainers

1.3.3.1.8. University professors

1.3.3.2. Age range of involvement

1.3.3.2.1. 18-55+

1.3.3.2.2. 43.5% 55+

1.3.3.3. Globally located

1.4. Design Principles

1.4.1. Plan ahead

1.4.2. Build in opportunities for feedback

1.4.3. Create interactivity

1.4.4. Provide variation and choice

1.4.5. Combine async and sync elements

1.4.6. Segment videos and components

1.4.7. Design responsive interactive communities

1.4.8. Include self and team reflection

1.4.9. Include weekly recaps and updates

1.4.10. Business Models

1.4.10.1. Free

1.4.10.2. Pay For Credit

1.4.10.3. Pay for Course Enhancement

1.4.10.4. Pay for Certification of Completion

1.4.10.5. Course Entry Fee

1.4.10.6. Pay for Assessments and Graded Work

1.4.10.7. Advertiser Supported

1.4.10.8. User Data (revenue from) Supported

1.4.10.9. Pay for Ancillary Services

1.4.10.10. Membership Fee

1.4.10.11. Revenue Sharing

1.4.11. Participation Patterns

1.4.11.1. Similar to Social Networks

1.4.11.2. Unconnected Floaters

1.4.11.3. Connected Lurkers

1.4.11.4. Connected Participants

1.4.11.5. Active Contributors

2. Technologies

2.1. Augmented and Virtual Reality

2.1.1. Technologies

2.1.1.1. Immersive Virtual Reality

2.1.1.1.1. Prompts Immediacy

2.1.1.1.2. 3D VR

2.1.1.1.3. Potentially less cognitive load

2.1.1.2. Non-Immersive Virtual Reality

2.1.1.2.1. 2D VR

2.1.1.2.2. Does Not prompt Immediacy

2.1.1.3. Augmented Reality

2.1.1.3.1. Prompts Immediacy

2.1.1.3.2. Potentially less cognitive load

2.1.2. AR Examples

2.1.2.1. Medical student patient empathy practice

2.1.2.2. Show forces in play during an experiement

2.1.2.3. Historical information at landmarks

2.1.3. Applications

2.1.3.1. Military

2.1.3.2. K-12 (more research would need to be done to verify how young these technologies have been applied)

2.1.3.3. College

2.1.3.4. Workplace

2.1.4. VR Use Cases

2.1.4.1. Difficult or dangerous to recreate situations

2.1.4.2. Distance collaboration

2.1.4.3. Therapeutic interventions

2.1.5. AR Use Cases

2.1.5.1. Just in time job aid

2.1.5.2. Display of normally invisible data/information

2.1.5.3. Distance collaboration

2.1.5.4. Informal learning scaffolding

2.1.6. VR Examples

2.1.6.1. Classroom Astronot expereince

2.1.6.2. Medical practitioners practicing surgical procedures

2.1.6.3. Classroom Eutrophication Scenario

2.2. Mobile, Wireless, and Ubiquitous

2.2.1. Tablet computer

2.2.2. Smart phone

2.2.3. Smart Speaker

2.2.3.1. Alexa

2.2.3.2. Siri

2.2.3.3. Google home

2.2.4. Augmented Reality

2.2.4.1. holo lens

2.2.4.2. iOS use of AR

2.2.4.3. Google glass

2.2.5. Chat platforms

2.2.5.1. WeChat

2.2.5.2. WhatsApp

2.3. Blended

2.3.1. Communications

2.3.1.1. Concepts

2.3.1.1.1. Cognitive Presence

2.3.1.1.2. Social Presence

2.3.1.1.3. Teaching Prescence

2.3.1.2. Email

2.3.1.3. Discussion Boards/Forums

2.3.1.4. Live chat

2.3.1.5. Blogs/message boards

2.3.2. Social Networking

2.3.3. Wiki’s

2.3.4. E-portfolios

2.3.5. AR

2.3.6. Webinars/video conferencing

2.3.7. Podcasting

2.4. Social and Participatory

2.4.1. YouTube

2.4.2. Snapchat

2.4.3. Facebook

2.4.4. Website

2.4.5. LinkedIN

2.4.6. Research Gate

2.4.7. Blog

2.4.8. Venmo

2.4.9. Twitter

2.4.10. LMS

2.5. Interactive and Global

2.5.1. LMS’s

2.5.2. Social Media

2.5.2.1. Facebook

2.5.2.2. Twitter

2.5.3. Online document editing

2.5.3.1. Google Docs

2.5.3.2. O365

2.5.4. Wiki’s

2.5.5. Discussion forums

2.5.6. Video

2.5.6.1. Youtube

2.5.6.2. Video conferencing tools

2.5.6.3. Voicethread

2.5.7. Email

3. Open Educational Resources

3.1. Creation and Application

3.1.1. How to Support/Encourage Adoption

3.1.1.1. Funders

3.1.1.1.1. Policies Requiring OA publications

3.1.1.1.2. Pre-exisiting arrangements with publishers

3.1.1.2. Institutions

3.1.1.2.1. Policies Requiring OA publications

3.1.1.2.2. Tie OA publishing to Review Process

3.1.1.2.3. Negotiate easier OA participation with publishers

3.1.1.3. Researchers

3.1.1.3.1. Moral considerations

3.1.1.3.2. Consider broader audience

3.1.1.3.3. Utilize Open Repositories

3.1.1.3.4. Contract negations with publisher to require OA

3.1.1.4. Editors

3.1.1.4.1. Encourage less restrictive archival practices

3.1.1.4.2. Keep OA publishing and archiving as core competency

3.1.1.5. Associations & Societies

3.1.1.5.1. Convert subscription service to OA

3.1.1.5.2. Launch new OA journals

3.1.1.5.3. Solicit publisher bids to strengthen negations around OA

3.1.1.6. David Wiley-founded Open Education Coalition

3.1.1.6.1. Participate in redefining what this community and conference looks like in the future following its collapse in 2019

3.1.2. Applications

3.1.2.1. Textbooks

3.1.2.2. Published Research

3.1.2.3. Open Courseware (OCW)

3.1.2.4. MERLOT

3.1.2.5. Connexions

3.1.2.6. Japanese OCW Consortium

3.1.2.7. Chinese Quality Course (CQC) Project

3.1.2.8. National Cultural Information Resources Sharing Projects

3.1.2.9. Science Data Sharing Project

3.1.2.10. Video One Course (VOC) Project

3.1.3. Creation

3.1.3.1. Time consuming

3.1.3.2. not always incentivized

3.1.3.3. Difficult to navigate

3.1.3.4. unaware it exists

3.1.4. Types of OERs

3.1.4.1. Full access (non-APC's)

3.1.4.2. Gold

3.1.4.2.1. Free to end user

3.1.4.2.2. Hybrid option

3.1.4.2.3. Open access

3.1.4.3. Green

3.1.4.3.1. Pre-publishing archival

3.1.4.3.2. Potentially prior to peer review

3.1.4.3.3. Decentralized archival repositories

3.1.4.4. Temporary access

3.1.4.5. Behind Paywall (pay to view)

3.1.5. Common Issues

3.1.5.1. Lack of awareness about OER usage

3.1.5.2. Lack of awareness about OER creation techniques

3.1.5.3. Lack of awareness around purpose of OERs

3.1.5.4. Difficulty in Design of Resource

3.1.5.5. Consensus in the community about goals, direction, methods of the movement

3.1.5.6. Lack of tenure credit

3.1.5.7. Issues with Content and Teachers Curriculum

3.2. Types of assets

3.2.1. Text Books

3.2.2. Digital simulations

3.2.3. Videos

3.2.4. Podcasts

3.2.5. Test/quiz question bank

3.3. Pros

3.3.1. Electronically available

3.3.2. More accessible

3.3.3. More interactive

3.3.4. Potentially more up-to-date

3.3.5. Cost

3.3.6. Adjustable to faculties current curriculum

3.4. Principles

3.4.1. Redistribute

3.4.2. Remix

3.4.3. Revise

3.4.4. Reuse

3.4.5. Retain

3.5. OER textbook repositories

3.5.1. openstax

3.5.2. BCcampus

3.5.3. Open Education Group

3.5.4. Global Text Project

3.5.5. Green Tea Press

3.5.6. InTechOpen

3.5.7. LibreTexts

3.5.8. MIT Open Courseware

3.5.9. Noba

3.5.10. Online Mathematics Textbooks

3.5.11. OpenBook Publishers

3.5.12. Open Textbook Initiative

3.5.13. [email protected]

3.5.14. Orange Grove: Textbooks and Courseware

3.5.15. MERLOT: Textbooks

3.5.16. OER Commons

3.5.17. Open SUNY

3.5.18. FreeTechBooks

3.6. Concerns

3.6.1. Quality

3.6.2. Time to change curriculum

3.6.3. Potentially outdated

3.6.4. Lack of supplemental materials

3.6.5. Decrease faculty job security (content being used outside of university causing lower enrollments)

3.6.6. Funding for development

4. Types of Learning

4.1. Active Learning

4.1.1. Examples

4.1.1.1. GoNorth!

4.1.1.2. the Jason Project

4.1.1.3. The World of Wonders

4.1.1.4. Blue Zones

4.1.1.5. Expedschools

4.1.1.6. eField Trips

4.1.2. Alternative Terminology for AL

4.1.2.1. virtual/electronic field trips

4.1.2.2. adventure-education

4.1.2.3. outdoor education

4.1.2.4. online expeditions

4.1.3. Further Research

4.1.3.1. Applications for higher ED

4.1.3.2. Teacher attributes to determine success of AL

4.1.3.3. Skill transfer from AL to real world

4.1.3.4. Applications in Standards based environment

4.1.3.5. Affects of cross cultural collaboration

4.1.4. Integration Models

4.1.4.1. curriculum-based

4.1.4.2. activities-based

4.1.4.3. standards-based

4.1.4.4. media-based

4.1.5. Attributes

4.1.5.1. Conectivist Framework

4.1.5.2. Authentic experiences

4.1.5.3. Social Engagement

4.1.5.4. Collaboration

4.1.5.5. Guided by Technology

4.1.5.6. Enhanced by Technology

4.1.5.7. Experiential learning

4.1.5.8. Flexible

4.2. Informal Learning (IL) & Self Directed Learning (SDL)

4.2.1. Context

4.2.1.1. Globally applicable

4.2.1.2. MOOCs

4.2.1.2.1. xMOOC

4.2.1.2.2. cMOOC

4.2.1.3. Various socio economic class

4.2.1.4. Internal to learning platform

4.2.1.5. External to learning platform

4.2.2. Theory

4.2.2.1. Garrison (1997)

4.2.2.1.1. Self-monitoring

4.2.2.1.2. Self-management

4.2.2.1.3. Motivation

4.2.2.2. Song & Hill (2007)

4.2.2.2.1. High level of self direction

4.2.2.2.2. Use of learning strategies

4.2.2.2.3. Learner responsible for assistance seeking

4.2.2.3. Mitra (2019)

4.2.2.3.1. learner-centered

4.2.2.3.2. cognitive approaches

4.2.3. Elicit behavior

4.2.3.1. Instructor

4.2.3.1.1. Prepared learning environment

4.2.3.1.2. Tools to guide IL & SDL

4.2.3.2. TA assistance

4.2.3.2.1. Discussion guide

4.2.3.3. Guiding other

4.2.3.3.1. Granny Cloud

4.2.3.3.2. Peer mentors/tutor

4.2.3.4. Self-Monitoring

4.2.3.4.1. Cognition

4.2.3.4.2. Meta Cogniton

4.3. Mobile, Wireless, and Ubiquitous learning

4.3.1. Technologies

4.3.1.1. Tablet computer

4.3.1.2. Smart phone

4.3.1.3. Smart Speaker

4.3.1.3.1. Alexa

4.3.1.3.2. Siri

4.3.1.3.3. Google home

4.3.1.4. Augmented Reality

4.3.1.4.1. holo lens

4.3.1.4.2. iOS use of AR

4.3.1.4.3. Google glass

4.3.1.5. Chat platforms

4.3.1.5.1. WeChat

4.3.1.5.2. WhatsApp

4.3.2. Context

4.3.2.1. Technology enabled

4.3.2.2. Collaborative

4.3.2.3. Predominatnly informal

4.3.2.4. Local

4.3.2.4.1. Defined communities

4.3.2.4.2. Not necessarily spacially defined

4.3.2.4.3. Not necessarily geographically defined

4.3.2.5. Impact

4.3.2.5.1. Obviously relative

4.3.2.5.2. Local

4.3.2.5.3. Transient and partial

4.3.2.5.4. Ideas about space and time

4.3.3. Research

4.3.3.1. Purposes

4.3.3.1.1. Evaluate the effects

4.3.3.1.2. Explore the potential

4.3.3.1.3. Investigate the affective domain

4.3.3.1.4. Design a system

4.3.3.1.5. Develop a theory

4.3.3.1.6. Influence of learner characteristics

4.3.3.2. Themes (Top 5)

4.3.3.2.1. Enabling mLearning applications & systems

4.3.3.2.2. Socio-cultural context & implications

4.3.3.2.3. Tools & technologies

4.3.3.2.4. Pedagogical approaches, models & theories

4.3.3.2.5. User studies

4.3.3.3. Theoretical Backgrounds (Top 4 - 4-way tie for fourth place)

4.3.3.3.1. Technology Acceptance Model

4.3.3.3.2. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

4.3.3.3.3. Collaborative Learning

4.3.3.3.4. Activity Theory / Systems

4.3.3.3.5. Cognitive Load Theory

4.3.3.3.6. Diffusion of Innovation

4.3.3.3.7. Self-regulated / Self-managed Learning

4.4. Blended Learning

4.4.1. Future in Education

4.4.1.1. F2F exclusive decreasing

4.4.1.2. Blended learning environments increasing

4.4.2. Concepts

4.4.2.1. Asynchronous

4.4.2.2. Synchronous

4.4.2.3. Between 30% - 80% online content

4.4.2.4. Design Focus

4.4.3. Where did it come from

4.4.3.1. Traditional Learning environment (F2F)

4.4.3.2. Digital Learning

4.4.4. Technology

4.4.4.1. Communications

4.4.4.1.1. Concepts

4.4.4.1.2. Email

4.4.4.1.3. Discussion Boards/Forums

4.4.4.1.4. Live chat

4.4.4.1.5. Blogs/message boards

4.4.4.2. AR

4.4.4.3. Webinars/video conferencing

4.4.4.4. Podcasting

4.4.4.5. E-portfolios

4.4.4.6. Wiki’s

4.4.4.7. Social Networking

4.4.5. Contributors to the Movement

4.4.5.1. Curtis Bonk

4.4.5.2. Alison King

4.4.5.3. Eric Mazur

4.4.5.4. Norm Friesen

4.4.5.5. Randy Garrison

4.4.5.6. Norman Vaughan

4.4.5.7. Ron Owston

4.4.6. Models

4.4.6.1. F2F Primary

4.4.6.2. Rotation

4.4.6.3. Flex

4.4.6.3.1. VR

4.4.6.4. Online Lab

4.4.6.5. Self Blend

4.4.6.6. Bookend

4.4.6.7. Anchor

4.4.6.8. Gradual Human (F2F) Approach

4.5. Social and Participatory Learning

4.5.1. Focus Areas

4.5.1.1. Social media

4.5.1.2. Participatory learning

4.5.1.3. Maker Space

4.5.1.3.1. Thinking with your hands

4.5.1.3.2. engaging with others in real time/physical space

4.5.1.3.3. Development of creative thinking

4.5.1.3.4. Development of problem-solving and iteration of ideas

4.5.2. Learning Concepts

4.5.2.1. Social constructivist

4.5.2.1.1. Knowledge is built in the social environment

4.5.2.1.2. Learning between individuals with varied degrees of topic knowledge

4.5.2.2. Connectivist learning

4.5.2.2.1. Collective knowledge is held in the network

4.5.2.2.2. Collective knowledge is created in the network

4.5.2.3. Behavioral

4.5.2.3.1. Data shows behavior patterns

4.5.2.3.2. Data used to change behavior

4.5.2.4. Constructionism

4.5.2.4.1. relates to "making"

4.5.2.4.2. builds on constructivist framework

4.5.3. Social Media in Learning

4.5.3.1. Cost benifits

4.5.3.1.1. Negatives

4.5.3.1.2. Positives

4.5.3.2. Examples

4.5.3.2.1. Blog

4.5.3.2.2. Website

4.5.3.2.3. Facebook

4.5.3.2.4. Snapchat

4.5.3.2.5. LinkedIN

4.5.3.2.6. Research Gate

4.5.3.2.7. LMS

4.5.3.2.8. Twitter

4.5.3.2.9. YouTube

4.5.3.2.10. Venmo

4.6. Interactive, Global, and Collaborative learning

4.6.1. Instructional Strategies

4.6.1.1. Group work

4.6.1.2. Self-introduction activities

4.6.1.3. Cultural awareness activities

4.6.1.4. Computer-supported learning activities

4.6.1.5. Inclusion of global examples

4.6.1.6. Engage learners early through pre-task exercise

4.6.1.6.1. Pre-writing task

4.6.1.6.2. Film prompt

4.6.1.6.3. Senario

4.6.1.6.4. Rubric for task

4.6.1.7. Internationalized curriculum

4.6.1.8. Offer needed scaffolding for task

4.6.1.9. Use of cultural consultants

4.6.1.10. Create environment for learners to construct knowledge

4.6.1.11. Optional controversial topic discussion

4.6.2. Challenges

4.6.2.1. Course design to meet unknown target learners culture

4.6.2.2. Grouping students for success

4.6.2.3. Language barriers

4.6.2.4. Understanding surrounding non-verbal cues

4.6.3. Technologies Used

4.6.3.1. Online document editing

4.6.3.1.1. Google Docs

4.6.3.1.2. O365

4.6.3.2. Wiki’s

4.6.3.3. LMS’s

4.6.3.4. Social Media

4.6.3.4.1. Facebook

4.6.3.4.2. Twitter

4.6.3.5. Email

4.6.3.6. Video

4.6.3.6.1. Youtube

4.6.3.6.2. Video conferencing tools

4.6.3.6.3. Voicethread

4.6.3.7. Discussion forums

4.6.4. Attributes

4.6.4.1. Asynchronous

4.6.4.2. Increase in

4.6.4.2.1. Sensitivity to cultural diversity

4.6.4.2.2. Critical thinking

4.6.4.2.3. Social cognition

4.6.4.2.4. Perspective taking

4.6.4.2.5. Task engagment

4.6.4.3. Synchronous

4.6.4.4. Anonymity creating space to share

4.6.4.5. Mitigation of learner concerns that limit contribution

4.6.4.5.1. Difficulties arising from learners spoken accent

4.6.4.5.2. Speed of speech vs reading

4.6.4.5.3. Decrease in bias between learners